General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder & bile ducts, the colorectal sections, the glands, head & neck, lymphatic system and thorax. They also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. General surgeries & surgeons may be sub-specialized into one or more of the above disciplines.
Bleeding, infections, bowel obstructions and organ perforations are the main problems dealt with. Cholecystectomy, the surgical removal of the gallbladder, is also one of the most common surgical procedures done worldwide. Ruptures of the appendix and small bowel obstructions are other common emergencies.
This is a relatively new surgery specialty dealing with minimal access techniques using cameras and small instruments inserted through 0.3 to 1 cm incisions. Robotic surgery is now evolving from this concept. Gallbladders, appendices, and colons can all be removed with this technique. Hernias are now repaired mostly laparoscopically. Most bariatric surgery is performed laparoscopically.
These surgeries treat a wide variety of major and minor colon and rectal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticulitis, colon and rectal cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhoids.
A majority of all non-cosmetic breast surgery from lumpectomy to mastectomy, especially pertaining to the evaluation and diagnosis, of breast cancer is done .
Vascular surgery specialists; general surgeons are capable of treating minor vascular disorders.
It deals with the removal or part of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the neck and the adrenal glands just above each kidney in the abdomen.
General surgeries performed are a wide variety of skin-related surgeries ranging from removing suspicious moles to treating major burns, removing tumors that often grow just below the skin such as fatty tumors or tumors that arise in muscles or other soft tissues, treating more complex skin or subcutaneous infections including necrotizing fasciitis which often employ skin grafts to cover defects in the skin resulting from burns, trauma, or infections.